Introduced to Indonesia in the 1600s by the Dutch, coffee wasn't cultivated for export until the early 1700s by the Dutch East India Company. Large Dutch-owned plantations abused the local laborers with low wages and poor conditions while the government oppressed the Indonesian people under the colonial regime.
An outbreak of coffee-leaf rust during the 1860 and 1870s devastated the coffee market, with many of the Dutch landowners abandoning their large estates. Local laborers stepped in to claim small plots of land abandoned by the Dutch and eventually replanted most of the old Arabica coffee plants with more disease resistant Robusta and other hybrids, establishing the predominance of smallholder growers that still exists in the islands today.
The post-harvest processing method of wet-hulling, known locally as Giling Basah, contributes to the unique earthy, savory characteristics for which Javanese coffee is known.
Originally referring to a blend of coffee beans from Java and Yemen, "Mocha Java" provided a perfect combination of the deep chocolate and winey berry characteristics of Yemeni beans (Yemeni coffee often referred to as "Mocha" after the main port) and the earthy profile of Javanese coffee. Over the years however, the words have come to be used for other coffee-related purposes which has lead to much confusion among consumers.
Ateng, Catimor, Tim Tim, Typica
July – September